Saturday, 18 January 2014

Manual test Interview Question & Answer


                    Hey Friends here are some manual testing Questions and answers for the beginners I have posted in this wall. Meanwhile I am trying to post more articles based on testing. Please get in touch. Please post in the comment box if you have more number of useful questions and answers for beginners. i will definitely try to add those things to this post. Mean while you can also check my other posts where I have updated some interview questions and answers on testing Methods. Check it out.

01.Q) What is Quality Assurance?
A) Quality Assurance(QA) is a process centered approach to ensure that an organization is providing the best possible Software/Product.
02.Q) What is testing?
A) The Process of Detecting and Identifying defects is Testing. A Defect is any variance between Actual and Expected result.
03.Q) Why Testing is required?
A) Testing is required to confirm that a system performs its intended functions correctly and to meet organizational goals like
         - Meeting Requirements
         - Satisfied Customers
         - Zero Defects
         - Improved Market Share
         - To get trust and confidence on the product
         - Ensure less cost of creating and maintaining software.
04.Q) Why does Software have defects?
A) Few reasons for Software defects are
         - Incorrect Requirements
         - Frequently Changing Requirements
         - Complex Business Logic
         - Complex Technology
         - Wrong design
         - Poor Coding
         - Work Pressure
05.Q) How is Testing related to application risk?
A) Proper testing could be used to reduce application risk. An application always has risk of defects in products. Too many defects could result in dissatisfied or frustrated users and this could fail application.
This risk could be minimized by testing application completely and finding out defects before Application goes to Production.
06.Q) What are the principles of Testing?
A) Fit for Purpose: The product should be suitable for intended purpose.
     Right First Time: Mistakes should be eliminated.
07.Q) What is Software Testing Life Cycle?
A) Software testing Life Cycle (STLC) contains following stages.
           - Requirement Analysis
           - Test Strategy Planning and Analysis
           - Test Case Development
           - Environment Setup
           - Test Execution
           - Defect Reporting
           - Summery Report and Analysis
08.Q) What is Requirement Analysis Phase?
A) In Requirement Analysis phase test team studies the requirements from a testing point of view to identify the testable requirements. The QA team may interact with various stake holders(Client, Business Analysts, technical Leads, System Architects etc.) to understand the requirements in details. 
09.Q) What is Test Strategy and Planning?
A) In this stage QA team will determine effort and cost estimates for the project and would prepare the Test Plan.
10. Q) What is Test case development?
A) Test case Development phase involves
            - Identification
            - Creation
            - Verification
            - Rework of Test Cases
 This also includes identification, Creation, Verification and review of Test Data.
11. Q) What is test environment setup?
A) In this phase the Test environment is worked upon. Test Environment decides the software and hardware conditions under which software is tested. It is normally provided by Customer or Development Team. Test environment is where QA team will perform the testing.
12. Q) What is Test Execution?
A) Test Execution Phase: QA Team will execute the Test Cases and scripts. At the end of execution all the defects will be reported to Development team.
13.Q) What is Defect Reporting?
A) The Process of Documenting the failed test case is defect reporting. Defect reporting is a very diligent process which involves:
    - Title
    - Summery of what failed
    - Detailed steps to reproduce failure.
    - Identify Data Elements involved.
    - Screen shots of failure
    - Requirement Specification reference.
    - Failed test case reference.
    - Test Environment
    - Software Product release
    - Software Product Build
    - Defect Severity
    - Defect Priority
Failure to correctly document one or more items might result in rejection or defect.
14.Q) What is Summery Report and Analysis?
A) Summery Report can be generated daily during test execution or end of execution. It might be both. It is used to communicate the progress of test execution to different stake holder of application. (Client, Project Management team, Business Analyst, Development team etc.)

A typical summery report contains following.
         - Percentage of test case execution.
         - Failed test case Number and Percentage
         - Passed test case Number and Percentage
         - Blocked test cases
         - Highlights
         - major Concerns if any
15.Q) Name Few Products for Defect Reporting.
A) Few popular defect reporting tools are 
         - HP Quality Control
         - IBM Rational Clear Quest
         - JIRA
         - Bugzilla
16.Q) What is Functional testing?
A) Functional testing refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code. These are usually found in the requirements documentations. Functional test tend to answer the question of "Can the user do this" or "Does this particular feature work"
17.Q) What is Non functional testing?
A) Non Functional testing refers to aspects of the software that may not be related to a specific function or user action.
Few examples of Non Functional testing will be to verify 
        - Scalability
        - Performance
        - Security
        - Throughput
18.Q) What is the difference between verification and validation?
A) Verification is a review without actually executing the Process while Validation is checking the Product with actual execution.
For Example Code review and syntex check is verification while actually running the product and checking the result is validation.
19.Q) What is Latent defect?
A) A Latent defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure because the exact set of conditions were never met.
20.Q) What is Masked defect?
A) A Masked defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure just because another defect has prevented that part of the code from being executed.
21.Q) What is required to begin testing?
A) Following are critical to begin testing
          - Acceptance test plan
          - Requirement Specification
          - Risk area application
          - Testing Data
22.Q) What is Acceptance test plan?
A) Acceptance test plan defines the entire test which the product has to pass so that it can go into production.
23.Q) What is Requirement Specification?
A) Requirement Specification is a complete description of the behaviour of a system to be developed and may include a set of use cases that describes interactions the users will have with the software.
        The requirement specification also contains non functional requirements. Non functional requirements impose constraints on the design or implementation, such as 
              - Performance Engineering Requirements
              - Quality Standards
              - Design Constraints etc.
24.Q) What is Risk Area Application?
A) End user defines the risk area of an application. Application contains multiple functions and certain functions are more critical than other. Risky area are identified early so as to give more importance to it.
Ex- In a Shopping site, Billing pr Product Listing is more critical than product review. The Shopping site can not function without Product Listing or Billing, but it can function to some extent without product reviews.
25.Q) What is Testing Data?
A) Testing Data is Provided by Business Analyst or End Users. It is so important so that the application could be tested as close as possible to the Production condition. 
Testing data is used to develop 
       - Realistic test cases
       - Testing Scenarios
       - Valid and Invalid range
26.Q) What is Regression Testing?
A) Regression testing is the process of testing changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programming still works with the new changes. Regression testing is a normal part of the program development process and, in larger companies, is done by code testing specialists.
27.Q) What is Smoke Testing?
A) Smoke testing is non-exhaustive software testing, ascertaining that the most crucial functions of a program work, but not bothering with finer details. The term comes to software testing from a similarly basic type of hardware testing, in which the device passed the test if it didn't catch fire the first time it was turned on.
28.Q) What is the difference between Severity and Priority in Testing?
A) Severity: Severity determines the defect's effect on the application. Severity is given by Testers

Priority: Determines the defect urgency of repair. Priority is given by Test lead or project manager

1. High Severity and Low Priority : For example an application which generates some banking related reports weekly, monthly, quarterly & yearly by doing some calculations. If there is a fault while calculating yearly report. This is a high severity fault but low priority because this fault can be fixed in the next release as a change request.

2. High Severity and High Priority : In the above example if there is a fault while calculating weekly report. This is a high severity and high priority fault because this fault will block the functionality of the application immediately within a week. It should be fixed urgently.

3. Low Severity and High Priority :
 If there is a spelling mistake or content issue on the homepage of a website which has daily hits of lakhs. In this case, though this fault is not affecting the website or other functionalities but considering the status and popularity of the website in the competitive market it is a high priority fault.

4. Low Severity and Low Priority : If there is a spelling mistake on the pages which has very less hits throughout the month on any website. This fault can be considered as low severity and low priority.

Here I have also posted some more Interview question and answers on Testing Methods. Check it out Here.
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